An explanation of the psychological motivational and social effects of performance enhancing drugs o

Behavioral intention We assessed the respondents' intention by asking them which of the eight statements concerning their future use of performance-enhancing drugs would fit them best.

Why performance enhancing drugs should be illegal in sports

An athlete's coach and social contacts are influential motivators in decision to use PED. Implications A hypothesized life-cycle model of PE identifies vulnerability factors across the stages of athlete development with the view of informing the design of anti-doping assessment and intervention. This relationship demonstrates that athletes who are more intrinsically motivated, focus more on autonomy, relatedness, and competence in sport as opposed to winning, and are more likely to be good sports, showing respect for themselves, other athletes, and the rules of the competition, thus do not engage in PED use Donahue et al. Despite the marketing claims, chemical assistance alone does not yield sustainable results. Conversely, intrinsic motivation characterises behaviour that is driven by personal desires such as enjoyment Hodge et al, Abstract Background Performance enhancement PE is a natural and essential ingredient of competitive sport. Social, economic, political and cultural environmental constituencies influence people's choices and decisions. They mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone. Economic models of doping mainly assume that athletes act according to economic rationality. This growth is influenced by two distinct classes of vulnerability factors, controlled by internal and external inhibiting factors and constantly moderated by the situational factors. Theoretical framework. However, the life-cycle model of PE and the vulnerability factors are applicable to all sporting and non-sporting situations where a perceived 'pill taking' shortcut or 'quick fix' is available. Worryingly, the stereotype view of the muscle bound athlete using anabolic steroids is erroneous as research is now showing that there is a trend of use for adolescents or adults concerned with their body shape or body fat distribution essentially for cosmetic reasons. Allen and colleagues studied elite Scottish athletes to determine their attitudes towards PED use based on contributions from the goal orientations and motivational climate.

Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess differences in background characteristics between non-users, ex-users and current users; Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationship between determinants' and respondents' intention to use performance-enhancing drugs.

This growth is influenced by two distinct classes of vulnerability factors, controlled by internal and external inhibiting factors and constantly moderated by the situational factors. Availability or access to performance enhancing drugs is perceived by athletes as a barrier they must overcome if they are determined to use such means [ 36 ].

Table I. Theoretical framework.

effects of drugs on athletes

To translate the dilemma into sports, athletes' best case would be to compete at doping-free events. Findings from meta-analyses emphasise the effect of social normative influences on doping Ntoumanis et al. The increasing medical intervention has been justified on the grounds of the unique needs of a high performing athlete.

An explanation of the psychological motivational and social effects of performance enhancing drugs o

Strelan and Boeckmann's model of hypothetical doping use posits that personal moral beliefs and health concerns act as preventing factors, whereas drug testing and sanctioning have little deterrent effect [ 15 ]. I love sport, and I happen to coach U8 GAA and more latterly U8 Soccer and as you can guess I have a young boy who plays this age group, a reluctant player! Three-quarters of the respondents who had already left school had finished secondary school or an equivalent. Interestingly, in a search for predicting factors of steroid use, no significant difference was found in the characteristics of the steroid users and those who were offered but reportedly declined the drug [ 16 ]. They found that task orientated goals were significantly related to attitudes towards doping, such that an increase in mastery goal orientation was associated with more favourable attitudes towards anti-doping. We used a seven-point scale for both normative beliefs [very negative -3 to very positive 3 ] and for their motivation to comply [none 1 to a lot 7 ]. Where have we seen concerns for this before?! This relationship demonstrates that athletes who are more intrinsically motivated, focus more on autonomy, relatedness, and competence in sport as opposed to winning, and are more likely to be good sports, showing respect for themselves, other athletes, and the rules of the competition, thus do not engage in PED use Donahue et al. The following were listed: anabolic steroids, growth hormone, insulin, clenbuterol, prohormones of testosterone , drugs against side effects, stimulants, diuretics and thyroid hormone. Such influences can range from simple peer pressure and apparent acceptability by teammates or fellow athletes, to more powerful internal and external pressures associated with outcomes and enhanced performance Ntuoumanis et al. Why would a man who was believed to have had an amazing talent that was admired around the world, cheat the system? In terms of predicting behavioural outcome, attitude and beliefs usually correlate significantly with doping behaviour [ 12 , 13 ] and in many cases, behavioural intention was found to be the strongest predictor [ 9 , 12 , 14 ]. Theoretical framework.

Scientists constantly seek ways to improve sports performance. Allen and colleagues studied elite Scottish athletes to determine their attitudes towards PED use based on contributions from the goal orientations and motivational climate.

Negative effects of drugs in sport

The following were listed: anabolic steroids, growth hormone, insulin, clenbuterol, prohormones of testosterone , drugs against side effects, stimulants, diuretics and thyroid hormone. In the early years of training, activities were aimed to refine skills and perfect techniques; the paradigm shift from fixed to expendable capacities, hence to performance enhancement, had not occurred until the cold war era [ 4 ]. Athletes rely upon medical help to reach their maximum potential, to prevent injury or shorten recovery time if injury happened [ 5 , 57 ] and such intervention is not only widely accepted but expected by all stakeholders. This relationship demonstrates that athletes who are more intrinsically motivated, focus more on autonomy, relatedness, and competence in sport as opposed to winning, and are more likely to be good sports, showing respect for themselves, other athletes, and the rules of the competition, thus do not engage in PED use Donahue et al. Table I. What motivates elite athletes to use performance- enhancing drugs? This situation displayed the toxic extent to which athletes will go to, to be successful. Statistical analyses We recoded the items of the determinant scales such that a higher score showed that the gym user had a greater predisposition toward using drugs. Additionally, Sas-Nowoseilski and Swiatkowska investigated the relationship between athletes doping attitudes and goal orientation. What would drive someone with so much sporting ability and media spotlight, to use a banned substance in order to outperform his competitors? Background The amateur notions of the 'gentleman sport' have been surpassed by the need for effectiveness and efficiency in order to maintain the constant improvement of sports performance. The impact on relationships and family life are catastrophic. Many athletes are inclined to use doping provided that the drug is undetectable [ 31 , 33 ], while others do not see doping as a 'problem', to them it is a part of their normal training regime [ 34 , 35 ].

The interplay between facilitating and inhibiting systemic and personality factors, constantly influenced by situational factors could result in an outcome vector of 'doping attitudes', which combines with subjective norms to influence intentions to choose prohibited PE methods.

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Performance enhancing drugs and their psychological and medical impact