Theoretically, the concepts of complexity and clarity are independent of each other—a person could have either a more or less complex self-concept that is either well defined and consistent, or ill defined and inconsistent.
Self-concept clarity, the extent to which individuals have self-concepts that are clearly defined and stable over time, can also help people to respond more positively to challenging situations.
In implementing this exercise, Sandy was in effect consciously occupying a position that she had unconsciously occupied all along, that of one who preserved a negative status by systematically discounting a great deal of evidence.
This often manifests in a lack of confidence and pessimism. Hoffman, L. A number of factors can impact self-esteem, including how we compare ourselves to others and how others respond to us.
Perhaps people with higher self-esteem tend to have a more well-defined and stable view of their positive qualities, whereas those with lower self-esteem show more inconsistency and instability in their self-concept, which is then more vulnerable to being negatively affected by challenging situations.
Koestner, R. Gender differences[ edit ] Research frominspired by the differences in self-concept across cultures, suggested that men tend to be more independent, while women tend to be more interdependent.