See Rosenzweig, M. Can Women Have Children and a Career? This may be related to the much smaller Japanese wage premium associated with college degrees—where prime-age college graduate women make 48 percent more than those with only a high school education—compared with the 98 percent bonus enjoyed by college-educated U.
Fewer children could also contribute to higher participation rates, but here the patterns in Japan and the U. The particular emphasis of this paper has been on the surprising relative progress of Japanese women starting in Using Current Population Surveys done each March by the Census Bureau, Blau and Kahn examine the changes in married women's labor supply, taking account of demographic factors, such as the number and age of their children, and other factors, including non-labor income.
In Japan, growth in long-term care employment would have produced a 0.
In contrast, the "labor supply elasticity" of husbands has always been very low 0 to. These reforms spurred the production of tea, for which women have a comparative advantage because they tend to be shorter in height than men and their fingers are more nimble.
As shown in appendix figure 1, while the Japanese fertility rate is notably lower than in the United States, it has actually been increasing sincein contrast to a U. One notable exception to this pattern is the Middle East and North Africa.