The dynamics of migration in france
Although there was a presence of, Vietnamese in France since the late 19th century mostly students and workersa wave of Vietnamese migrated to the country after the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Accordswhich granted Vietnam its independence from France in With fewer 'obligations' afterFrench governments continued to see Algerians' presence in France as temporary, as did the independent Algerian state under Ahmed Ben Bella and Houari Boumedienesince for Algeria, the persistence of large numbers of Algerians in France characterised a neo-colonial situation.
However, Algerians continued to have severe difficulties regarding housing provision. The 'duty' France had as a colonial power had left governments with no choice but to accept greater Algerian migration to ease the increasingly tense political situation in Algeria itself.
Immigration dans la france
By , the Paris region alone had a North African Muslim population of 70, Religiosity varies by origin and religion Religion assumes a cultural and social function in immigrant communities that it has partially lost for the majority population. The pace of industrial growth attracted millions of European immigrants over the next century, with especially large numbers arriving from Poland , Belgium , Portugal , Italy , and Spain. The limited reforms introduced under the Statute of Algeria granted Algerian men full citizenship in mainland France and instituted unregulated passage between Algeria and France. About two-third of the immigrants worked in mining, steel, construction, and automotive industries. Indeed, the Algerian diaspora in France played a leading role in the Algerian War of Independence This distorted the reality of migrant trajectories and histories, hiding the presence of migrant families during the Algerian War. Furthermore, former colonial police and welfare officers from Algeria or Morocco were employed to 'oversee' the Algerian community, bringing with them attitudes and practices that prolonged policies initiated in the s and that had been intensified during the Algerian War. As the Algerian War started in , there were already , Algerian immigrants in France.
Although many initially returned to the country after a few years, as the Vietnam War situation worsened, a majority decided to remain in France and brought their families over as well.
In fact, religious mix in couples one religious and one atheist parent, for example, or parents of two different religions leads to a fall in religious transmission.
Immigration and emigration in france
Hungary and Latin America, because they feared the dictatorship in their home countries. However, living conditions, especially housing, were often appalling: Algerians, although now French citizens, were at the bottom of the queue for social housing, and many local authority agencies openly discriminated against them. The defeat and then occupation of France further sapped imperial authority. Although many initially returned to the country after a few years, as the Vietnam War situation worsened, a majority decided to remain in France and brought their families over as well. Algerian migration - and Algerians - remained extremely problematic from a state perspective: France had always looked to encourage European migration, judging Algerians to be ethnically distinct and undesirable on that basis since harder to 'integrate'. There was also a great number of students and workers from former French colonies in Africa. However, Algerians continued to have severe difficulties regarding housing provision. Nothing exemplified Algerians' socio-economic status better than the shanty-towns bidonvilles that grew around Paris, Lyons and Marseilles in the s. Over one thousand were injured, hundreds seriously. However, Algerians continued to arrive in France, reaching the , mark in and never again going below that figure except during World War II. Many of these refugees came from countries in Eastern Europe i. Algerians and their descendants were always the main targets of such representations, even if these were couched within the euphemism of 'immigrant', 'immigration' or 'young people'. Indeed, Algerian migrants arriving in Marseilles had simply left behind one colonial society to enter another, that of metropolitan France, although for many migrants there were significant social, cultural and linguistic differences to negotiate. However, just as Algerians were hoping for significant reform - if not outright independence - the post-war Republican consensus in Paris moved in the other direction in order to revitalise France's severely dented colonial grandeur. Young people of Algerian descent were singled out by state exhortations to assimilate or 'integrate', and by the Front national's insistence that they could not assimilate.
Algeria was France's major settler colony: migration there from mainland France, Italy, Spain and Malta involved a policy of land expropriation of the indigenous population that slowly wore down the traditional economic, social and cultural structures of the Algerian peasantry, and existing patterns of labour migration within Algeria were extended to mainland France.
However, living conditions, especially housing, were often appalling: Algerians, although now French citizens, were at the bottom of the queue for social housing, and many local authority agencies openly discriminated against them.
It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims, especially to the larger cities, living in subsidized public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates. Algerians worked in coal- mining, iron, steel and in car manufacture, and were concentrated in Marseilles, Lyons, St.
The "pieds-noirs" were Europeans settlers who moved to Algeria, but migrated back to France since when Algeria declared independence.
With this massive influx of immigrants, France became an asylum for refugees. According to the convention in Geneva, refugee status was granted to four out of five immigrant applicants. All migrants tended to be less focused on communities back in Algeria, and therefore stayed longer in France, facilitating their integration into the French working class.
based on 79 review